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Executive Order 8802 was a government order which did not allow for racial discrimination in the workplace, particularly in the industrial companies used to make equipment/materials used during the. Executive Order 8802 1948 Election Civil Rights Act Deregulation 'Goldilocks' Economy Census 2000 Executive Order 8802. 1941 - Defense plants initially resisted hiring African-Americans. The President of the United States manages the operations of the Executive branch of Government through Executive orders. After the President signs an Executive order, the White House sends it to the Office of the Federal Register (OFR). Executive Order 8802 by Madeline Otten on Prezi. There are multiple factors which serve to limit the powers of the American presidency. As of December 2012, President Obama had signed 144 executive orders during his presidency. The irony of this was that the executive order was supposed to help reduce secrecy. The only way he would stop the.

'Executive Order No. 8802', Fair Employment Practice in Defense Industries

Executive Order 8802 Meaning

Executive Order 8802 was signed by PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941, to prohibit ethnic or racial discrimination in the nation's defense industry. It also set up the Fair Employment Practice Committee. It was the first federal action, though not a law, to promote equal opportunity and prohibit employment discrimination in the United States. Many citizens of Italian or German ethnicity were affected by World War II and this was impeding the war effort and lowering morale. This ethnic factor was a major motivation for Roosevelt.[1] The President's statement that accompanied the Order cited the war effort, saying that 'the democratic way of life within the nation can be defended successfully only with the help and support of all groups,' and cited reports of discrimination:[2]10.8 mac update download.

There is evidence available that needed workers have been barred from industries engaged in defense production solely because of considerations of race, creed, color or national origin, to the detriment of workers' morale and of national unity.

The executive order had also been demanded by civil rights activists A. Philip Randolph, Walter White, and others involved in the March on Washington Movement who had planned a march on Washington, D.C. in 1941 to protest racial discrimination in industry and the military. They suspended the march after Executive Order 8802 was issued.[3]

The order required federal agencies and departments involved with defense production to ensure that vocational and training programs were administered without discrimination as to 'race, creed, color, or national origin.' All defense contracts were to include provisions that barred private contractors from discrimination as well.

History[edit]

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The Order established the President's Committee on Fair Employment Practice within the Office of Production Management, which was to centralize government contracting in the defense buildup before the United States entered World War II. The FEPC was to educate industry as to requirements, investigate alleged violations and 'shall take appropriate steps to redress grievances which it finds to be valid.' The Committee was also supposed to make recommendations to federal agencies and to the President on how Executive Order 8802 could be made most effective.

The preamble to the Order read: [4]

Whereas it is the policy of the United States to encourage full participation in the national defense program by all citizens of the United States, regardless of race, creed, color, or national origin, in the firm belief that the democratic way of life within the Nation can be defended successfully only with the help and support of all groups within its borders; and

Whereas there is evidence that available and needed workers have been barred from employment in industries engaged in defense production solely because of consideration of race, creed, color, or national origin, to the detriment of workers' morale and of national unity:

Now, Therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the statutes, and as a prerequisite to the successful conduct of our national defense production effort, I do hereby reaffirm the policy of the United States that there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin, and I do hereby declare that it is the duty of employers and of labor organizations, in furtherance of said policy and of this Order, to provide for the full and equitable participation of all workers in defense industries, without discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin;

These statements were directed at abolishing discrimination in employment within the defense industry and government. The government did not end segregation in the armed forces until 1948, when President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981.

Executive Order 8802 was amended several times during the war years.[5] After the US entered the war, the FEPC was placed under the War Production Board, established under E.O. 9040.

In May 1943, Executive Order 9346 was issued, expanding the coverage of the FEPC to federal agencies carrying out regular government programs and returning it to independent status. Following the end of World War II, the Committee was terminated by statute on July 17, 1945.[6]

8802

This EO was superseded by Executive Order 9981 in 1948. Years later congressional passage of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and Executive Order 11246 in 1965 prohibited discrimination in employment and public facilities.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^John W. Jeffries (2018). Wartime America: The World War II Home Front. p. 97. ISBN9781442276505.
  2. ^The New York Times: 'President Orders and Even Break for Minorities in Defense Jobs,' June 26, 1941, accessed February 4, 2012
  3. ^Catherine M. Lewis and J. Richard Lewis, Jim Crow America: A Documentary History (University of Arkansas Press, 2009), 169
  4. ^Roosevelt, Franklin. 'Executive Order 8802 - Prohibition of Discrimination in the Defense Industry'. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  5. ^National Archives: 'Franklin D. Roosevelt – 1941', accessed February 4, 2012
  6. ^National Archives: 'Executive Orders (8000–8999)', accessed February 4, 2012
  7. ^Brooks, Roy L.; et al. (2000). Civil Rights Litigation: Cases and Perspectives (2nd ed.). Carolina Academic Press. pp. 398–99. ISBN0-89089-691-7.

External links[edit]

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EXECUTIVE ORDER 9981

Establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity In the Armed Forces.

WHEREAS it is essential that there be maintained in the armed services of the United States the highest standards of democracy, with equality of treatment and opportunity for all those who serve in our country's defense:

NOW THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, by the Constitution and the statutes of the United States, and as Commander in Chief of the armed services, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Executive Order 8802 Pdf

1. It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. This policy shall be put into effect as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time required to effectuate any necessary changes without impairing efficiency or morale.

2. There shall be created in the National Military Establishment an advisory committee to be known as the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, which shall be composed of seven members to be designated by the President.

3. The Committee is authorized on behalf of the President to examine into the rules, procedures and practices of the Armed Services in order to determine in what respect such rules, procedures and practices may be altered or improved with a view to carrying out the policy of this order. The Committee shall confer and advise the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air Force, and shall make such recommendations to the President and to said Secretaries as in the judgment of the Committee will effectuate the policy hereof.

4. All executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government are authorized and directed to cooperate with the Committee in its work, and to furnish the Committee such information or the services of such persons as the Committee may require in the performance of its duties.

5. When requested by the Committee to do so, persons in the armed services or in any of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government shall testify before the Committee and shall make available for use of the Committee such documents and other information as the Committee may require.

6. The Committee shall continue to exist until such time as the President shall terminate its existence by Executive order.

Executive Order 8802 Prezi

Harry Truman

The White House
July 26, 1948